Articles and Reviews

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Dr. U. R. Ananthamurthy: A Maze of Ambiguities

Dr. U. R. Ananthamurthy: A Maze of Ambiguities
     To say that Dr. U. R. Ananthamurthy was a multi-faceted personality is to state the obvious.  He was a gifted writer of fiction (35 short stories; 6 novels) and poetry (5 collections), a serious socio-literary critic (10 collections of essays), a successful  translator (5 works),  and an Activist.       He took many extreme positions, defended them passionately, and  courted controversies.   How do we approach and understand such a baffling and dynamic writer?
      One possible  framework is ‘the changing interpretive  patterns of  Modernity and Tradition’.  This binary opposition  subsumes all other binaries such as ‘Individual and System’ and ‘Nativism and Western Thought’ ).  Most importantly, he passionately explored these patterns of negation and approbation  through a series of oppositions and symbolic representations.   If we view all of his writings together, we find in him an ideological shift in course of time; and, on the basis of such a shift,  we can categorise  his writings into ‘ pre- Bhava’  and ‘post- Bhava’  phases ( his novel Bhava was published in 1994).  We can consider   Samskara and Divya as the most representative works of these two phases.
     Samskara, arguably the most successful  novel of Ananthamurthy, equates ‘Tradition’ with obsolete  set of beliefs and rituals prevalent in Hindu society, as mirrored in the Brahmin community.  This community, represented by Praneshacharya, is ignorant of the Vedic lore, lusts for gold and sensual pleasures, and mechanically observes  rites and rituals. The  disease of plague which devastates the village symbolizes the decaying society and its life-thwarting values.    Juxtaposed with Praneshacharya, there is  Naranappa, a rationalist, an atheist and a hedonist.   In the end, Naranappa dies and Praneshacharya renounces  his Brahminic legacy, and goes out  in search of a new way of life.   The novel is open-ended, suggesting  that both Praneshacharya  and Naranappa  are incomplete until they internalise each other,  the Self absorbing its Shadow (in the Jungian sense).
     Divya, at the other end, interprets Tradition as the sum total of all the intellectual achievements of ancient India and  its life-affirming values such as love and compassion for all,  and a yearning for mystical experience. Gauri  represents such a Tradition.  She can experience intense wonder and joy about creation and she can enter into a dialogue with the setting sun. Owing to such mystical sensibility, she knows no caste, no lineage, and nothing like ‘purity’ and ‘impurity.’  In contrast with such ‘liberated mind,’ there is Ghanashyama representing Modernity; he is an educated and Westernised Indian, who is arrogant and aggressive, championing total  change and progress.  In the end, Gauri and Ghanashyama marry, symbolising as it were the meeting of the spiritual East and the materialist West.  However, whereas Samskara is open-ended and dialogic,  Divya, essentialist in tone, is completely monologic in its view of  Indian tradition and culture.
     There are many other novels and  stories which posit an ideological position in between these two extremes, the most brilliant being “The Stallion of the Sun.” This story juxtaposes, very sensuously, the two ends of  the ‘Tradition-Modernity’ binary, represented by  Hade Venkata and Ananthu.  Venkata, a rustic, is lazy, irresponsible and doesn’t worry about money; as contrasted with him, Ananthu is highly educated, Westernised, and holds a high position in society.   However, the story reveals, it is Venkata and not Ananthu who is capable of mystic experience; Venkata can sight and experience the stallion of the Sun, but Ananthu, a rationalist, can only envy him.  The story manages this juxtaposition very objectively, privileging neither end.
     Another recurring theme in the works of Ananthamurthy is ‘the Individual and the System.’  Ananthamurthy, a staunch individualist, hates any System which destroys  the ‘essence’ of an individual; and he finds all modern Systems authoritative and suffocating.  Jagannatha, a Westernised intellectual, is reduced to a laughing stock by the orthodox religious system in Bharatipura.  Bara”  depicts Satish, an idealistic IAS officer, who is forced by the  bureaucratic system to  order firing on an unarmed mob.  The most ambitious work in this category is Awasthe, which examines many political systems and dramatises the way an idealist politician, Krishnappa, is slowly sucked into the whirl of corruption by the present political system, based on elections and majority rule.  
        One of the most provocative essays,  “ Why Not Worship in the Nude?” can be considered a post-colonial re-assessment of  popular concepts like modernization  and rationality.  Written in the aftermath of Savadatti incident in 1986, it does not advocate nude worship but questions the intellectual arrogance which designates such practices as primitive.  He  bemoans  that we, educated and rational,  have lost that “feeling of religious awe.” In “ Tradition and Creativity,” he argues that “ whatever tradition we could have had has been lost to us through a certain amnesia because of our terrible attraction to the modern world system.” 
     “No, I can’t be an absolutist,” declared Ananthamurhty in his essay on ‘Nude Worship’.  We may quarrel with many of his ideological positions; but it is this skepticism, I believe, which makes him highly relevant today,  in a world  ridden with ‘Certainties and Absolute Truths.’
                                                    ******         C. N. Ramachandran   

Dr. S. Shettar, Halagannada: Lipi, Lipikara and Lipi Vyavasaya

Dr. S.  Shettar, Halagannada: Lipi, Lipikara and Lipi Vyavasaya
  Bengaluru: Abhinava Prakashana, 2014             P. 502; Price : 600/-
      “Monumental Study of Kannada Script, Literature and Scribes”
     Dr. S. Settar is a historian with a difference; he is not only interested in reconstruction of the past based on reliable evidence, but also in the common people like the sculptors and scribes and artisans who are usually ignored.  A bilingual writer, Settar shot into fame with the publication of
Shangam Tamilagam  in Kannada, in 2007; it has already seen nine reprints  besides bagging  the central Sahitya Akademi award for scholarly works.  The present work,  Halagannada, is more ambitious than the earlier one;  it studies, for the first time, 2020 edicts and inscriptions in Kannada during the first millennium, on the basis of which it throws new light on the evolution of  Kannada script & language, the scribes, and  social history of the period.  In this review, I shall confine myself only to a few of the major findings of Setter, documented in this work.
i)                    Evolution of Kannada script and language:
a)     After the first period (3rd century B. C.--3rd century A. D.) during
which the only official script was Brahmi  and the language was Pali  as evidenced by Ashokan minor edicts,   during the second period (3rd century  A. D. – 4th century A. D.), while  Brahmi script  was continued, Sanskrit  gradually replaced Pali.  During and after the fourth century,  Brahmi and  Sanskrit were gradually replaced by early Kannada script and language.   Sanskrit inscriptions on copper plates also began to appear in this period, the Nagarjunakonda inscription being the first Sanskrit inscription in the South.
b)     the Tagarti edict of 349 A. D.  could be the first Kannada edict, a
century before the famous Halmidi edict of A. D. 450. 
c)     Bilingual edicts/inscriptions begin to appear during the 6th
century.  While in a few the Kannada script was common for both Sanskrit and Kannada  (Tagare copper plate, 6th C), in others,  two scripts and two languages were used in one edict (ex. Alampura edict, 713 A. D.;  this edict is split into two vertical parts; while the left part uses both Kannada script & language, the right part uses Nagari script and Sanskrit language).  Similarly, there were inscriptions in Kannada and Telugu (Kannada script) and inscriptions in three languages in Kannada script (Kannada, Telugu & Tamil; Rameshwaram Copper plate, A. D. 803). 
d)    Contrary to the prevalent opinion,  Kannada borrowed ‘voiced-
aspirated consonants’ and nasals not from Sanskrit but from Prakrit.    
e)      Sanskrit-Kannada influence was mutual.   Just as Sanskrit
influenced Kannada  Kannada also influenced  Sanskrit script and morphology.  ( Ex. use of now extinct  shakata refa and rala of old Kannada in the two Talagunda edicts .  In fact, according to Settar, the above two letters are used in at least 30 Sanskrit edicts.)  Also, Sanskrit morphology borrowed words like ‘naadu,’ ‘palli,’ ‘ooru,’ etc. from Kannada.
     II  Scribes:  Scribes (here, meaning those who carved on stone or on copper plates) were known by different names such as twashta, tattakaara, tattaara,  Vishwakarma, and such.
a)     The first scribe known to us was Chapada,  sent to Karnataka by
Ashoka,  who belonged to Gandhaara.   There were many other illustrious scribes like Jayasena, Sriramapunyavallabha, Vishwakarmacharya, and such; and most of the scribes were non-Brahmins.
b)     Contrary to the existing belief, Brahmins were not the composers of the
‘edict-texts’  up to the 8th century.  Till that period, the scribes were both writers of texts and carvers on stones and copper plates.
III Caste-relations:  Brahmadeyas (land-gifts  given to Brahmins) and devadeya (land-gifts given to temples) decreased considerably by the 8th century; and, in their place, those who fought for the rulers or undertook public service  like building tanks in villages began to be honoured.  Nolamba Pallavas didn’t  care much for either the Vaidics and Sanskrit or  temple-culture. 
       The criterion of a great research work is the amount of arguments and debates it provokes, and Settar’s work is no exception. Some of the points raised in the Seminar (centred on  this work) were: the very use of the term ‘halagannada’  and whether it denotes an established early  form of Kannada or different versions of Kannada prevalent in different parts of Karnataka; whether Sanskrit really lost its prestige after the 9th century since literary histories tell us otherwise; and such.  Most importantly, edicts and inscriptions have limited purposes; and the knowledge gained through them has to be supplemented with other sources like oral & written literature, discursive writings, and travelogues.  Otherwise, we will reach such indefensible conclusions like ‘ since  terms  such as ‘varna,’ and ‘Jaati’ (in the meaning of caste)  are not to be found in the edicts, there may not have been Varnashrama hierarchy in the first millennium’ (as Settar speculates in his Preface).
     The only way we can honour Settar’s seminal and pains-taking research is through engaging ourselves in serious debates provoked by this work.

                          ----------------------         C. N. Ramachandran